The Twelfth Planet
Chapter 6, in it’s entirety, of The 12th Planet – [Book 1 of The Earth Chronicles Series]
(Part 5 of 5)
From The 12th Planet
by Zecharia Sitchin
In efforts to make sense of this legion of texts, and in particular to identify correctly the planets of our solar system, a succession of scholars came up with confusing results. As we now know, their efforts were doomed to failure because they incorrectly assumed that the Sumerians and their successors were unaware that the solar system was heliocentric, that Earth was but another planet, and that there were more planets beyond Saturn.
Ignoring the possibility that some names in the star lists may have applied to Earth itself, and seeking to apply the great number of other names and epithets only to the five planets they believed were known to the Sumerians, scholars reached conflicting conclusions. Some scholars even suggested that the confusion was not theirs, but a Chaldean mix-up – for some unknown reason, they said, the Chaldeans had switched around the names of the five "known" planets.
The Sumerians referred to all celestial bodies (planets, stars, or constellations) as MUL ("who shine in the heights"). The Akkadian term kakkab was likewise applied by the Babylonians and Assyrians as a general term for any celestial body. This practice further frustrated the scholars seeking to unravel the ancient astronomical texts. But some mul’s that were termed LU.BAD clearly designated planets of our solar system.
Knowing that the Greek name for the planets was "wanderers," the scholars have read LU.BAD as "wandering sheep," deriving from LU ("those which are shepherded") and BAD ("high and afar"). But now that we have shown that the Sumerians were fully aware of the true nature of the solar system, the other meanings of the term bad ("the olden," "the foundation," " the one where death is") assume direct significance.
These are appropriate epithets for the Sun, and it follows that by lubad the Sumerians meant not mere "wandering sheep" but "sheep" shepherded by the Sun – the planets of our Sun.
The location and relation of the lubad to each other and to the Sun were described in many Mesopotamian astronomical texts. There were references to those planets that are "above" and those that are "below," and Kugler correctly guessed that the reference point was Earth itself.
But mostly the planets were spoken of in the framework of astronomical texts dealing with MUL.MUL – a term that kept the scholars guessing. In the absence of a better solution, most scholars have agreed that the term mulmul stood for the Pleiades, a cluster of stars in the zodiacal constellation of Taurus, and the one through which the axis of the spring equinox passed (as viewed from Babylon)0 circa 2200 BC. Mesopotamian texts often indicated that the mulmul included seven LU.MASH (seven "wanderers that are familiar"), and the scholars assumed that these were the brightest members of the Pleiades, which can be seen with the naked eye. The fact that, depending on classification, the group has either six or nine such bright stars, and not seven, posed a problem; but it was brushed aside for lack of any better ideas as to the meaning of mulmul.
Franz Kugler (Sternkunde und Sterndienst in Babel), reluctantly accepted the Pleiades as the solution, but expressed his astonishment when he found it stated unambiguously in Mesopotamian texts that mulmul included not only "wanderers" (planets) but also the Sun and the Moon – making it impossible to retain the Pleiades idea. He also came upon texts that clearly stated that "mulmul ul-shu 12" ("mulmul is a band of twelve"), of which ten formed a distinct group.
We suggest that the term mulmul referred to the solar system, using the repetitive (MUL.MUL) to indicate the group as a whole, as "the celestial body comprising all celestial bodies."
Charles Virolleaud (L’Astrologie Chaldéenne), transliterated a Mesopotamian text (K.3558) that describes the members of the mulmul or kakkabu/kakkabu group. The text’s last line is explicit:
The number of its celestial bodies is twelve.
The text leaves no doubt: The mulmul – our solar system – was made up of twelve members. Perhaps this should not come as a surprise, for the Greek scholar Diodorus, explaining the three "ways" of the Chaldeans and the consequent listing of thirty-six celestial bodies, stated that "of those celestial gods, twelve hold chief authority; to each of these the Chaldeans assign a month and a sign of the Zodiac.
Ernst Weidner (Der Tierrkeis und die Wege am Himmel) reported that in addition to the Way of Anu and its twelve zodiac constellations, some texts also refer to the "way of the Sun," which was also made up of celestial bodies: the Sun, the Moon, and ten others. Line 20 of the so-called TE-tablet stated: "naphar 12 sheremesh ha.la sha kakkab.lu sha Sin u Shamash ina libbi ittiqu," which means, "all in all, 12 members where the Moon and Sun belong, where the planets orbit."
We can now grasp the significance of the number twelve in the ancient world. The Great Circle of Sumerian gods, and all of Olympian gods thereafter, comprised exactly twelve; younger gods could join this circle only if older gods retired. Likewise, a vacancy had to be filled to retain the divine number twelve. The principal celestial circle, the way of the Sun with its twelve members, set the pattern, according to which each other celestial band was divided into twelve segments or was allocated twelve principal celestial bodies. Accordingly, there were twelve months in a year, twelve double-hours in a day. Each division of Sumer was assigned twelve celestial bodies as a measure of good luck.
Many studies, such as the one by S. Langdon (Babylonian Menologies and the Semitic Calendar) show that the division of the year into twelve months was, from its very beginnings, related to the twelve Great Gods. Fritz Hommel (Die Astronomie der alten Chaldäer) and others after him have shown that the twelve months were closely connected with the twelve zodiacs and that both derived from twelve principal celestial bodies. Charles F. Jean (Lexicologie Sumerienne) reproduced a Sumerian list of twenty-four celestial bodies that paired twelve zodiacal constellations with twelve members of our solar system.
In a long text, identified by Frank Thureau-Dangin (Ritueles Accadiens) as a temple program for the New Year Festival in Babylon, the evidence for the consecration of twelve as the central celestial phenomenon is persuasive. The great temple, the Esagila, had twelve gates. The powers of all the celestial gods were vested in Marduk by reciting twelve times the pronouncement "My Lord, is He not my Lord." The mercy of the god was then invoked twelve times, and that of his spouse twelve times. The total of twenty-four was then matched with the twelve zodiacal constellations and twelve members of the solar system.
A boundary stone carved with the symbols of the celestial bodies by a king of Susa depicts those twenty-four signs: the familiar twelve signs of the zodiac, and symbols that stand for the twelve members of the solar system. These were the twelve astral gods of Mesopotamia, as well as of the Hurrian, Hittite, Greek, and all other ancient pantheons.
Although our natural counting base is the number ten, the number twelve permeated all matters celestial and divine long after the Sumerians were gone. There were twelve Greek Titans, twelve Tribes of Israel, twelve parts to the magical breastplate of the Israelite High Priest. The power of this celestial twelve carried over to twelve Apostles of Jesus, and even in our decimal system we count from one to twelve, and only after twelve do we return to "ten and three" (thirteen), "ten and four," and so on.
Where did this powerful, decisive number twelve stem from? From the heavens.
For the solar system – the mulmul – included, in addition to all the planets known to us, also the planet of Anu, the one whose symbol – a radiant, celestial body – stood in the Sumerian writing for the god Anu and for "divine." "The kakkab of the Supreme Scepter is one of the sheep in mulmul," explained an astronomical text. And when Marduk usurped the supremacy and replaced Anu as the god associated with this planet, the Babylonians said: "The planet of Marduk within mulmul appears."
Teaching humanity the true nature of Earth and the heavens, the Nefilim informed the ancient astronomer-priests not only of the planets beyond Saturn but also of the existence of the most important planet, the one from which they came:
THE TWELFTH PLANET.
* * *
This concludes Chapter 6, The Twelfth Planet, in its entirety
All images appear exactly as depicted in The 12th Planet
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